Taken as a whole, these exhibit a multiplicity of approaches and marshal a wonderful array of motifs in their quest to elucidate the past on the largest of canvases and to help us understand how the world came to be as it is today. A Hundred Horizons may be thought of as an exemplar of the latest wave of what are nowadays often termed global histories. This is Sugata Bose's first book-length foray into this field. He comes to it from a background in the social and economic history of modern south Asia. Its imprint is clearly visible in his conception of the Indian Ocean.
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Another major influence is Bose's current academic milieu. He is based at Harvard, where he is the Gardiner professor of oceanic history and affairs. But, more importantly, Harvard is also home to Bernard Bailyn who, in the mids, was among the first to contextualize the then-burgeoning field of "Atlantic history," a field of which he is considered one of the principal standard-bearers.
A Hundred Horizons
It is then no surprise that there is strong resonance between the work being done by Atlantic Ocean historians--especially at Harvard--and in the timing of A Hundred Horizons, its approach, and the themes that it explores. The main focus of this work is purportedly the Indian Ocean in the 19th century and the first half of the 29th.
Bose, along with a whole host of maritime historians, is of the opinion that colonialism ruptured the Indian Ocean realm. It was a paradoxical world because the sea provided unity, transport, and the means of exchange and intercourse and simultaneously acted as the great divider, the obstacle that had to be overcome.
Movements of ideologies, societies, and states, though interactive, do not always occur at the same time or operate at the same rate.
This is the problem that historians of oceans face. These are physical, cognitive, as well as socially enforced boundaries, all of which make up spatial boundaries. Spatial boundaries vary according to the nature of cultural, socio-economic, and political interactions under consideration. And every landscape contains notions of territory and territoriality. While territory is a physical space, territoriality is politically, socially and culturally constituted.
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It is a geographical expression of social power and can be defined as the attempt to affect, influence or control people, phenomena and relationships by delimiting and asserting control over a geographical area. The notion of territory is, fundamentally, a reification of the locales and landscapes that give rise to feelings of belonging, familiarity and rootedness. Territoriality, therefore, is implicit in land use, but the notion that it was only introduced to the Indian Ocean by the Chinese in the fifteenth century and by the Europeans a century later is not true.
Territoriality came about with the rise of states that sought to remake their Indian Ocean on their own terms-be they the Cholas, the Fatimids or the Songs. Power relations constitute territoriality and territoriality creates spatiality. And the socially created boundaries of the Indian Ocean vary according to time, politics and contingency. As individuals, Nizami, Daryabadi, Tagore, Bose and Gandhi certainly travelled the Indian Ocean, but they did so neither as individuals of a sovereign state, nor as representatives of an independent country, but as subjects of a colonial state.
In other words, new boundaries and itineraries are constantly created. Certainly Bose imagines new boundaries and new itineraries for his Indian Ocean. This last is a specialized and a spatialized way of seeing. Matsuda writes that words and symbols are not merely supplements to a representational space any more. That the space. His history of the Indian Ocean therefore remains, in the final analysis, a history in the Indian Ocean, and moreover it firmly adheres to the imperial school of history writing. While since the relevant global unit has been the network of seas as a whole, rather than individual basins, the Indian Ocean retains a very immediate reality for most of the peoples who inhabit its littoral and port communities, 61 and the challenge for studies of seas and oceans is to probe the connections and dynamics fueling processes of integration in individual maritime regions without losing sight either of local experiences or of global interactions.
But this has been contested. Bentley notes that after the sixteenth century global interactions increasingly undermined the coherence of distinct maritime regions, making the problem of spatial boundaries much more acute. Ultimately Hundred Horizons, while pointing to an enormously rich fabric of travel, negotiation and contestation, offers no new insights. History unfolds on different levels— local, regional, continental, hemispheric, oceanic, and global— and the processes of integration and differentiation maintain tension at all levels.
III, No. Even more striking is that many of these rivers are of extraordinary magnitude and reach deeply inland. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 44, 3, July No hydraulic effort on the part of the state could ever change this basic geographic factor. Environmental change was largely beyond the control of man.
Pearson, address to the conference Cultures and Commodities, Leiden, September , What it takes is imagination. Jerry H.
Karras and J. McNeill, , London, ; J. Conniff and T. Cambridge, England, ; P. Berkeley, ; P. Cambridge, Mass.
Journal of Interdisciplinary History
Emmer, ed. Emmer, and M. Morner, eds. Reid, Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, New Haven, Conn. For connected history see Modern Asian Studies, Vol. For connective history see Karen Wigen,. The Making of a Japanese Periphery , Berkeley, Gilroy posited a diasporic consciousness that far transcended conventional narratives of modernity, bondage, slavery, and captivity.
Hundred Horizons is conceptualized similarly. London, , 1 : 17 henceforth The Mediterranean. Victor Lieberman, Strange Parallels. Anthony Reid, ed. Geoff Wade, translation of Ming Shi Lu available at epress. But the verdict is still out on the applicability of the seventeenth century crisis to Southeast Asia. See Victor B.
Volume 1 : The Lands below the Winds. Much of the work is about constitutions of historical knowledge that are not academic although they are increasingly becoming so and about the highlighting of interdisciplinary categories-archaeological. Robert M. June, : The first of them is the Sea of Fars, which men sail setting out from Siraf.
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It is a big sea, and in it is the island of Waqwaq and others that belong to the Zanj. These islands have kings. One can only sail this sea by the stars. It contains huge fish, and in it are many wonders and things that pass description. The third sea is called Harkand, and in it lies the island of Sarandib, in which are precious stones and rubies. Here are islands with kings, but there is one king over them.
https://bagasima.cf In the islands of this sea grow bamboo and rattan. The fourth sea is called Kalah-bar and is shallow and filled with huge serpents. Sometimes they ride the wind and smash ships. Here are islands where the camphor tree grows. The fifth sea is called Salahit and is very large and filled with wonders. The sixth sea is called Kardanj ; it is very rainy. The seventh sea is called the sea of Sanji also known as Kanjli. Martin W. David C. This is clearly debatable, but let us now look at this space that A Hundred Horizons journeys through.
At the precise colonial moment, we find a History 1 and several History 2s at play in the Indian Ocean. It is a multilocal space marked by nominatives of conflict : Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima, the Pali, Fatuaua, the mutiny on the Bounty, in New Caledonia, in Honolulu, nuclear testing in the Marshalls and Moruroa, Fiji coups, struggles in the Solomon Islands.