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This, in my opinion, is the best reason to consume protein during exercise. Ivy and Portman state clearly in their book The Performance Zone that protein and carbs! They recommend grams of protein per hour of exercise. Whey protein and high glycemic-index carbs are preferred because they are rapidly digested.

This amount can be divided into "doses" and consumed every minutes during exercise. Their specific formula is summarized in the table below.

Determining the optimum nutritional recovery formula requires a lot of careful analysis. There are 3 critical factors:. As mentioned above, glycogen stores are limited and can be severely depleted by prolonged exercise. The best way to replenish glycogen stores is by consuming carbohydrates. Consuming protein in addition to carbs can enhance this process, but it depends on how much carbohydrate is ingested:.

John Ivy, PhD, et al. Additional research is summarized in the table below:. This research suggests that there is a critical level of carbohydrate intake: if carbohydrate intake during recovery is at least 1. However, it's not just the amount Ivy et al. So, to summarize: Scientific research suggests that the optimum carbohydrate replenishment formula is at least 1.

And if this formula is followed, then the additional consumption of protein does not enhance glycogen resynthesis further. But, are these amounts realistic? Maybe not. In one study utilizing the ideal carbohydrate intake of 1. Half of the subjects in this study complained of bloating and GI distress during the 4-hr recovery period Howarth KR, et al. Exercise increases the rates of both protein breakdown and re-synthesis in muscle for up to 48 hours after a workout Rasmussen BB, et al. Unless protein is consumed during recovery, breakdown will exceed synthesis, resulting in the loss of muscle mass.

Protein consumed after exercise assists in the repair and synthesis of muscle proteins Howarth KR, et al. To maximize muscle recovery after exercise, 3 factors must be considered: a how much protein to consume, b what type of protein to consume, and c when it is consumed. Answer: Not much. One study shows that as little as 10 grams of whey protein was effective Tang JE, et al. Another study showed that the effect maxed-out at about 20 grams of protein egg protein was used in this study Moore DR, et al.

However, the amount is probably less important than "when" it is consumed see below. Whey is generally regarded as the preferred protein for building muscle. It contains branched-chain amino acids BCAAs , which skeletal muscle prefers, and, also, it is considered to be a "fast" protein The uptake of nutrients by skeletal muscle is most active immediately following the end of exercise. Thus, to properly feed skeletal muscle, a "rapid acting" protein is needed.

This role is filled by whey.

Weight Loss Principles for Athletes

Casein, on the other hand, is considered a "slow" protein. It is absorbed more slowly, releasing amino acids into the bloodstream for hours after ingestion. The metabolic activity of skeletal muscle is elevated for hrs after exercise ends Rasmussen BB, et al.

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During this period, a steady supply of amino acids is needed. This role is filled by casein. Some experts have even recommended that casein should be consumed before going to sleep because of its sustained-release properties. Combining the rapid actions of whey with the sustained effects of casein appears to be an ideal formula for skeletal muscle recovery after exercise:.

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One study comparing the response to milk protein ie. One way to explain this is that whey protein optimized the synthesis of new muscle protein while casein suppressed the breakdown of existing muscle protein. Soy protein does not offer this dual action Wilkinson SB, et al.


Research shows that skeletal muscle cells uptake nutrients most efficiently within the first minutes after exercise ends. Several hours later, this uptake process is greatly diminished. In one study, when recovery nutrition began 3 hours after exercise ended, the response was much less effective compared to beginning immediately after the end of exercise Levenhagen DK, et al.

Much of this research has been summarized in an excellent book by Ivy and Portman: Nutrient Timing. Putting all this into more simple terms: It is critical to begin consuming carbs and protein within 30 minutes after exercise ends. This is when skeletal muscle cells uptake nutrients most effectively. Because timing is so important, rapidly-absorbed nutrients are preferred: whey protein is ideal, and, high glycemic-index carbs are preferred. Also, small amounts at frequent intervals are more effective than a single huge dose. A lot of science has been presented.

But what really matters is whether performance actually improves if recovery nutrition is optimized. There is quite a bit of evidence that optimizing your post-exercise nutritional formula does improve recovery, and, in doing so, may improve performance during the next session:.


They then did a high-intensity performance ride to exhaustion. Within 30 minutes after a hard workout Ivy and Portman suggest intake should begin within 15 minutes after exercise ends , athletes should consume grams of high glycemic index carbs, and grams of whey protein. This represents a carb:protein ratio of Several other products are listed in the table below:. To determine the carb:protein ratio of other commercial sports drinks, refer to the comprehensive table in my review: "Sports Drinks and Recovery Drinks". Note that a oz. Protein is definitely beneficial to athletes and those who exercise strenuously, but the specific benefits that consuming protein will provide depend on if energy needs are being adequately met by carbohydrates.

So, the first thing to do is to analyze your carbohydrate intake. The critical values are as follows:. If your intake of carbs is less than any of these amounts, then, some of the protein you consume will be burned for energy and not devoted to rebuilding muscle protein. In their book The Performance Zone , Ivy and Portman use the label "30W15" to describe how much and when to consume these nutrients: beginning 30 minutes before exercise and ending 15 minutes after exercise ends.

They recommend consumption of both carbs and protein during this entire time frame. Listed below are the specific carbohydrate and protein recommendations by Ivy and Portman note that I have excluded the vitamin and mineral amounts from their formula :. Whey protein and high glycemic-index carbs are preferred because they are rapidly absorbed.

Glutamine is also recommended because it is the most abundant amino acid in skeletal muscle. Reviewing the research for this article has caused me to change my opinion regarding the appropriate carb-to-protein ratio of my daily diet. I based this choice on the following:. Previously, I mistakenly interpreted the RDA to represent the "optimal" amount that we need. In reality, it represents the minimal amount necessary to avoid health problems. Robert Wolfe, PhD, makes the case that RDA recommendations for protein intake are based on the wrong criteria see discussion above.

Instead, he proposes that muscle function should be the focus. He states that health and disease do correlate with the functional status of skeletal muscle and suggests that the average adult's daily requirement of protein is closer to 1.

Dietary Protein and Resistance Exercise in Elderly (NUTRIAGINGPROT)

The appropriate consumption of protein provides several benefits for athletes and those who exercise strenuously. Protein can supply the body with additional calories if carbohydrate intake is too low. However, the real benefit of consuming protein before, during, and immediately after exercise is due to the effects on restoring muscle protein, reducing muscle injury, and enhancing recovery. Thus, a theme begins to emerge: all adults from sedentary people to serious athletes might do better if protein intake was higher.

My goal will be 1. Consuming Protein: Resistance exercise weight-lifting, etc. However, this process is stimulated for up to 48 hours after resistance exercise whereas a single dose of protein stimulates it for only hours. But, in doing so, be careful to not also increase your intake of fat, salt, and other unwanted nutrients. Also, don't increase your consumption of red meat to achieve this goal. The October issue of CSPI's consumer nutrition newsletter Nutrition Action summarizes the detrimental aspects of consuming too much red meat.

Instead, opt for healthy vegetable sources of protein, and consider high-protein bars and shakes that have low amounts of fat. But, regardless of that amount, consuming protein before, during, and immediately after exercise appears to have benefits.

Dietary Protein and Resistance Exercise by Lonnie Michael Lowery

The combination of whey with casein is an ideal regimen for skeletal muscle recovery, however, when you consume protein post-exercise appears to be an even more critical factor. Q: Is milk an acceptable recovery drink? Sports nutrition research has led to a huge interest in "recovery" drinks for athletes. These are discussed in detail in: Sports Drinks and Recovery Drinks.

Milk is also an excellent choice for a "recovery" beverage. Milk contains roughly 1 gram of protein per fl. There are other reasons why milk is a good recovery drink. Milk contains 2 proteins: casein and whey. Recall that whey protein is a good source of BCAA's.