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Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview For nearly 60 years the clans of Highland Scotland proved to be an almost constant thorn in the side of a series of British monarchs.

About the Author Stuart Reid was born in Aberdeen in Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Approaches to Enterprise Risk Management.

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Of the army's 16 infantry battalions present, four were Scottish units and one was Irish. On the outbreak of the Jacobite rising, extra incentives were given to lure recruits to fill the ranks of depleted units. Regiments were named after their Colonel.

Battle of Culloden

In theory, an infantry regiment would comprise up to ten companies of up to 70 men. They would then be strong, including officers.

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However, regiments were rarely anywhere near this large, and at the Battle of Culloden, the regiments were not much larger than about men. The Government cavalry arrived in Scotland in January They were not combat experienced, having spent the preceding years on anti-smuggling duties. A standard cavalryman had a Land Service pistol and a carbine. However, the main weapon used by the British cavalry was a sword with a inch blade. However, up until this point in the campaign, the Government artillery had performed dismally. The main weapon of the artillery was the 3-pounder.

The other weapon used was the Coehorn mortar.

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Cumberland's route from Aberdeen towards Culloden. On 30 January, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in Scotland to take command of the government forces after the previous failures by Cope and Hawley. Cumberland decided to wait out the winter, and moved his troops northwards to Aberdeen. Around this time, the army was increased by 5, Hessian troops.

The Hessian force, led by Prince Frederick of Hesse , took up position to the south to cut off any path of retreat for the Jacobites.

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The weather had improved to such an extent by 8 April that Cumberland again resumed the campaign. The government army reached Cullen on 11 April, where it was joined by six battalions and two cavalry regiments. The Jacobites quickly turned and fled, first towards Elgin and then to Nairn. By 14 April, the Jacobites had evacuated Nairn, and Cumberland camped his army at Balblair just west of the town.

They had argued for a guerrilla campaign, but Charles Edward Stuart refused to change his mind. On 15 April, the government army celebrated Cumberland's twenty-fifth birthday by issuing two gallons of brandy to each regiment. Murray proposed that they set off at dusk and march to Nairn.


Murray planned to have the right wing of the first line attack Cumberland's rear, while Perth with the left wing would attack the government's front. In support of Perth, Charles Edward Stuart would bring up the second line. The Jacobite force however started out well after dark at about Murray led the force cross country with the intention of avoiding government outposts. This however led to very slow going in the dark.

Murray's one time aide-de-camp , James Chevalier de Johnstone later wrote, "this march across country in a dark night which did not allow us to follow any track, and accompanied with confusion and disorder". After a heated council with other officers, Murray concluded that there was not enough time to mount a surprise attack and that the offensive should be aborted. Sullivan went to inform Charles Edward Stuart of the change of plan, but missed him in the dark. Meanwhile, instead of retracing his path back, Murray led his men left, down the Inverness road.

In the darkness, while Murray led one-third of the Jacobite forces back to camp, the other two-thirds continued towards their original objective, unaware of the change in plan. One account of that night even records that Perth and Drummond made contact with government troops before realising the rest of the Jacobite force had turned home. Not long after the exhausted Jacobite forces had made it back to Culloden, reports came of the advancing government troops.

However military historian Jeremy Black has contended that even though the Jacobite force had become disordered and lost the element of surprise the night attack remained viable, and that if the Jacobites had advanced the conditions would have made British morale vulnerable and disrupted their fire discipline. Panorama of the battlefield, circa The flag on the left side indicates the Jacobite lines, the flag on the right side shows the location of the Government lines. Early on a rainy 16 April, the well rested Government army struck camp and at about set off towards the moorland around Culloden and Drummossie.

Jacobite pickets first sighted the Government advance guard at about , when the advancing army came within 4 miles 6. Cumberland's informers alerted him that the Jacobite army was forming up about 1 mile 1. The Jacobite army was originally arrayed between the corners of Culloden and Culwhiniac parks from left to right : the three Macdonald battalions; a small one of Chisholms ; another small one of Macleans and Maclachlans ; Lady Mackintosh and Monaltrie's regiments; Lord Lovat's Regiment; Ardsheal's Appin Stewarts; Lochiel's Regiment; and three battalions of the Atholl Brigade.

Murray who commanded the right wing, however became aware of the Leanach enclosure that lay ahead of him would become an obstacle in the event of a Jacobite advance. Without any consultation he then moved the brigade down the moor and formed into three columns. It seems probable that Murray intended to shift the axis of the Jacobite advance to a more northerly direction, thus having the right wing clear the Leanach enclosure and possibly taking advantage of the downward slope of the moor to the north. Jacobite front line skews and stretches, Government forces compensate; others break into and through Culwhiniac enclosure.

However the Duke of Perth seems to have misinterpreted Murray's actions as only a general advance, and the Macdonalds on the far left simply ignored him. The result was the skewing of the Jacobite front line, with the left wing Macdonalds still rooted on the Culloden Parks wall and the right wing Atholl Brigade halfway down the Culwhiniac Parks wall.

In consequence, large gaps immediately appeared in the severely over-stretched Jacobite lines.

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A shocked Sullivan had no choice but to position the meagre 'second line' to fill the gaps. Further back were cavalry units. When Sullivan's redeployment was completed Perth's and Glenbuchat's regiments were standing on the extreme left wing and John Roy Stuart 's was standing beside Ardsheal's. Cumberland brought forward the 13th and 62nd to extend his first and second lines. At the same time, two squadrons of Kingston's Horse were brought forward to cover the right flank.

These were then joined by two troops of Cobham's 10th Dragoons. While this was taking place, Hawley began making his way through the Culwhiniac Parks intending to outflank the Jacobite right wing. Anticipating this, the two battalions of Lord Lewis Gordon's regiment had lined the wall. However since the Government dragoons stayed out of range, and the Jacobites were partly in dead ground they moved back and formed up on a re-entrant at Culchunaig, facing south and covering the army's rear. Once Hawley had led the dragoons through the Parks he deployed them in two lines beneath the Jacobite guarded re-entrant.

By this time the Jacobites were guarding the re-entrant from above with four battalions of Lord Lewis Gordon's and Lord Ogilvy's regiments, and the combined squadron of Fitzjames's Horse and Elcho's Lifeguards. Unable to see behind the Jacobites above him, Hawley had his men stand and face the enemy. Over the next twenty minutes, Cumberland's superior artillery battered the Jacobite lines, while Charles, moved for safety out of sight of his own forces, waited for the Government forces to move.

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Inexplicably, he left his forces arrayed under Government fire for over half an hour. Although the marshy terrain minimized casualties, the morale of the Jacobites began to suffer. Several clan leaders, angry at the lack of action, pressured Charles to issue the order to charge. The Clan Chattan was first away, but an area of boggy ground in front of them forced them to veer right so that they obstructed the following regiments and the attack was pushed towards the wall.

The Jacobites advanced on the left flank of the Government troops, but were subjected to volleys of musket fire and the artillery which had switched from roundshot to grapeshot. Despite this, many Jacobites reached the Government lines, and for the first time a battle was decided by a direct clash between charging highlanders and formed redcoats equipped with muskets and socket bayonets.

The brunt of the Jacobite impact was taken by only two Government regiments— Barrell's 4th Foot and Dejean's 37th Foot. Barrell's regiment lost 17 and suffered wounded, out of a total of officers and men. Dejean's lost 14 and had 68 wounded, with this unit's left wing taking a disproportionately higher number of casualties. Barrell's regiment temporarily lost one of its two colours. Also sent forward to plug the gap was Bligh's 20th Foot , which took up position between Sempill's 25th and Dejean's 37th. Huske's counter formed a five battalion strong horseshoe -shaped formation which trapped the Jacobite right wing on three sides.

Poor Barrell's regiment were sorely pressed by those desperadoes and outflanked. One stand of their colours was taken; Collonel Riches hand cutt off in their defence We marched up to the enemy, and our left, outflanking them, wheeled in upon them; the whole then gave them 5 or 6 fires with vast execution, while their front had nothing left to oppose us, but their pistolls and broadswords; and fire from their center and rear, as, by this time, they were 20 or 30 deep was vastly more fatal to themselves, than us. Bayonet drill innovation said to have been developed to counter the " Highland charge ".

Each soldier would thrust at the enemy on his right—rather than the one straight ahead—in order to bypass the targe of Highlanders. Located on the Jacobite extreme left wing were the Macdonald regiments.

Highland Cathedral

Popular legend has it that these regiments refused to charge when ordered to do so, due to the perceived insult of being placed on the left wing. Standing on the right of these regiments were the much smaller units of Chisholms and the combined unit of Macleans and Maclachlans. Every officer in the Chisholm unit was killed or wounded and Col. Lachlan Maclachlan, who led the combined unit of Macleans and Maclachlans, was gruesomely killed by a cannon shot. As the Macdonalds suffered casualties they began to give way. Immediately Cumberland then pressed the advantage, ordering two troops of Cobham's 10th Dragoons to ride them down.

The boggy ground however impeded the cavalry and they turned to engage the Irish Picquets whom Sullivan had brought up in an attempt to stabilise the deteriorating Jacobite left flank. However, by the time they had been brought into position, the Jacobite army was in rout. Hawley had previously left this Highland unit behind the enclosure, with orders to avoid contact with the Jacobites, to limit any chance of a friendly fire incident.